Low Income Housing Tax Credits
- I. What is the LIHTC?
- II. Why Are LIHTCs of Interest to Banks?
- III. How Does the LIHTC Program Work?
- IV. What Are Key Risks and Regulatory Issues Associated With LIHTCs?
- V. Who is in the LIHTC Business Today?
- VI. How Does the Cost or Pricing Structure of LIHTCs Work?
- VII. What Barriers Have Constrained the Growth in the Use of LIHTCs?
- Hypothetical Case Study: 9 Percent LIHTC Project With Basis Boost
- Hypothetical Case Study: 4 Percent LIHTC Project
- Hypothetical Pay-In Schedule for Equity
- Hypothetical Case Study: Investing in an LIHTC Fund
- Low Income Housing Tax Credits - Resource Directory I
Low-Income Housing Tax Credits:
Affordable Housing Investment Opportunities for Banks
The Low-Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC) is the federal government’s primary program for encouraging the investment of private equity in the development of affordable rental housing for low-income households. Since its creation in 1986, the LIHTC has helped to finance more than 2.4 million affordable rental-housing units for low-income households. 1 This Insights report describes how LIHTCs are used to finance the development of affordable housing and how national banks and federal savings associations (collectively, banks) can participate as investors and lenders in LIHTC- financed projects. The report outlines the risks and regulatory considerations of LIHTC investments, including the considerations these investments receive in Community Reinvestment Act (CRA) examinations.
The Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC) obtained the information for this report from a variety of sources, including banks, nonsupervised financial intermediaries, investment fund advisers, and other parties actively using LIHTCs to finance affordable housing. The information and examples offered are typical of LIHTC-financed projects. The report includes an overview of U.S. federal income tax laws and regulations applicable to the LIHTC program; however, the information in this report does not constitute tax advice, and investors should consult tax advisers about tax treatments for LIHTC investments.
Case studies of LIHTC-related financing are discussed in appendix A, B, C, and D. Appendix E lists abbreviations used in this report. Appendix F provides LIHTC resources.
1 What Happens to Low-Income Housing Tax Credit Properties at Year 15 and Beyond?, U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), August 2012. The authors note that 2.2 million LIHTC-financed properties were placed in service from 1987 through 2009, the last year for which they had data. The authors estimate the total in 2011 was 2.4 million.
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